Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776 The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America
When , in the course of human events , it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them , a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident , that all men are created equal , that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights , that among these are life , liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
That to secure these rights , governments are instituted among men , deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends , it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
Prudence , indeed , will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer , while evils are sufferable , than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations , pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism , it is their right , it is their duty , to throw off such government , and to provide new guards for their future security.
Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations , all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states.
We , therefore , the representatives of the United States of America in General Congress assembled , appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions , do in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies , solemnly publish and declare , that these united colonies are , and of right ought to be free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown , and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain , is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as free and independent states , they have full power to levy war , conclude peace , contract alliances , establish commerce , and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration , with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence , we mutually pledge to each other our lives , our fortunes and our sacred honor.
New Hampshire: Josiah Bartlett , William Whipple , Matthew Thornton
Massachusetts: John Hancock , Samual Adams , John Adams , Robert Treat Paine , Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island: Stephen Hopkins , William Ellery
Connecticut: Roger Sherman , Samuel Huntington , William Williams , Oliver Wolcott
New York: William Floyd , Philip Livingston , Francis Lewis , Lewis Morris
New Jersey: Richard Stockton , John Witherspoon , Francis Hopkinson , John Hart , Abraham Clark
Pennsylvania: Robert Morris , Benjamin Rush , Benjamin Franklin , John Morton , George Clymer , James Smith , George Taylor , James Wilson , George Ross
Delaware: Caesar Rodney , George Read , Thomas McKean
Maryland: Samuel Chase , William Paca , Thomas Stone , Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Virginia: George Wythe , Richard Henry Lee , Thomas Jefferson , Benjamin Harrison , Thomas Nelson Jr. , Francis Lightfoot Lee , Carter Braxton
North Carolina: William Hooper , Joseph Hewes , John Penn
South Carolina: Edward Rutledge , Thomas Heyward Jr. , Thomas Lynch Jr. , Arthur Middleton
Georgia: Button Gwinnett , Lyman Hall , George Walton
Source: The Pennsylvania Packet July 8, 1776